The ins and outs of gate security
Security gates are used when owners wish to control access to a secured area. There are many types of security gate on the market and choosing the best one is often a job for a professional. An expert is best equipped to select the type of barrier that will meet your full security needs.
Automatic gates are commonly used where vehicles can enter and exit a secure facility, and electronic security gates control access for vehicles entering and leaving the site.
Typical places to install automatic security gates are at the main entrance to a factory or office, at a staff car park or a storage loading and unloading area.
All vehicles entering and exiting the site can be required to use an automatic gate. Security gates may also be used inside a facility to protect certain areas, and it is common to see electronic gates used to separate private parking areas from public car parks.
Types of Automatic Security Gate
There are six basic types of automatic gate, and each type may employ one of several operation and control systems. Most commercial gates are made of metal and are often incorporated into a secure fencing system.
The operating system is usually electrically powered, and the opening and closing mechanism is generally chain driven or hydraulic. These are the main types of gate on the market, and here we offer an overview of their primary applications.
Barrier Arm Gate
Barrier Arm Gates are most often employed on car parks. It usually consists of a single barrier arm that lifts up to allow vehicles to pass through and drops again to prevent vehicle access.
Pedestrians can easily pass under or over the barrier, so this type of automatic gate offers almost no security against pedestrian access.
This automatic security gate type is most commonly used for light-duty on commercial premises. Sometimes called a 'rolling gate' it rides along a metal track installed across the entrance.
The Slide Gate is usually mounted parallel to the fence or wall and slides horizontally across the gate opening. Automatic slide gates do have a relatively high maintenance overhead; especially when used outdoors where debris can accumulate in the track, so the rollers need to be well lubricated.
Swing Gates hinge on one edge and swing open like a door, frequently traversing a 90° arc from the open and closed positions. Swing Gates may be a single or double leaf, and they can swing outwards or inwards. This type of security gate is found in domestic situations and residential areas thanks to the low cost, ease of installation and relatively low maintenance.
The swinging gate usually has additional safety features to prevent cars from being accidentally hit or people being trapped by the closing gate.
Lift Gates move up and down vertically over the gate opening. They are often found where there is limited space for the opening, and there are structures on each side such as walls or building that a high enough to provide support. Vertical Lift Gates are known to be efficient and reliable, but they do not have much aesthetic appeal.
These lift gates rotate upwards, providing some of the benefits of a standard lift gate without the need for high vertical support. However, Pivot Gates need more space than lift gates, and they can require greater maintenance, especially in cases where a spring mechanism is used instead of a counterweight to help pivot the structure upwards.
Similar to the lift gate, the Cantilever Gate is used for heavy-duty industrial gate application. The gate slides across the opening but, instead of using ground rollers, it is supported on rails that run parallel to the fence.
More reliable than slide gates, they do require wide fence sections to support the rail mechanism that often operates as a counterbalance to the weight of the overhanging gate itself.
Folding gate leaves are hinged together and fold back on themselves to allow access. These gates may be used in pairs on each side of the opening, and they usually have a track that runs along the top or bottom.
Folding gates are an excellent choice when space is limited, and they can open and close quickly. However, they do come with a maintenance overhead, and extra safety features are needed to prevent people from getting trapped when using them.
Automatic Gate Control Systems
Automatic security gates operate through a variety of access control devices including card readers, vehicle tag readers, digital keypads, and wireless transmitters. In many commercial security gate installations, the same access control system used to control entrance doors to the buildings is used to control the automatic gate system with the access card used for both.
Intercom systems: Intercom stations at automatic gates allow visitors to contact someone to open the barrier and allow access. The gate is opened remotely once the visitor's identity has been verified.
Video camera systems: Video cameras can view and record any activity at the security gate, and they are often used in conjunction with an intercom system to confirm visitor identity before opening.
Free exit devices: In many cases vehicle entry only needs to be verified, and vehicles are allowed to exit at any time. Devices that allow free exit include loop detectors, photoelectric beams, and pressure switches.
Special access: Services such as utility companies and postal delivery vans often need easy access to premises, and this is accomplished by the use of key-operated switches. Emergency services such and fire, ambulance and police may need to gain access at all times. Devices to facilitate this can include key boxes, strobe or siren-activated sensors or radio receivers activated by the emergency vehicle.
Security Gate Safety
Automatic security gates can be hefty indeed and can travel at relatively high speeds with the potential to cause severe damage or injury to both property and people. It is crucial that safety considerations are taken into account when planning any automatic gate installation.
Guidelines for automatic gate safety is set out in the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 325. This standard defines classes of automatic gate operators and the techniques that should be employed to prevent entrapment and reduce the potential for injury. Gate safety measures may include warning signs, audible alert, photoelectric sensors, contact sensors and other devices.
Choosing an Automatic Gate
Many things need to be considered when selecting an electronic gate and it is wise to get independent professional advice before ordering an installation. Here are just a few things to consider:
Opening width: The width of the entrance is a significant factor in deciding what type of automatic gate to use. While gate widths greater than 25 metres are possible, openings greater than 10 metres are more expensive and more problematic.
Position: The amount of space available on each side of the gate can limit the scope. Entrances, where space is at a premium may be limit the options available for automatic gates.
Amount of use: The number of times the gate will open and close is a major factor in selecting an automatic gate operator. Systems designed for residential use will quickly cause problems at an industrial or commercial site.
Size: In general, the width and height of the gate will determine its weight, and this may impact on the type of control system that is required. Gate weight varies with the material used such as steel, aluminium or wood, and allowance should be made for accumulations of snow, ice or debris on gate surfaces and mechanisms.
Speed: While slow opening speeds may be acceptable in a residential environment they may be unacceptable in a commercial setting where there is a high-volume of traffic. Gate size, weight, and type will all determine the opening and closing speeds attainable.
Construction: This can make an enormous difference to performance and reliability of automatic gate operations. Gates need to be specially designed for automatic operation.
Location: A major consideration is where the gate is to be installed. In general, gates installed in residential areas require more safety features than those in industrial environments. Most gates are designed to be used on level ground and special features are needed to operate on an incline. Special measures are required in areas that are subject to extreme hot or cold temperatures or to adverse weather conditions.
Power: While light-duty gates can be operated on standard electricity supplies some heavy-duty gate operators will require more serious electrical power and expert advice may be needed.
Choosing an automatic gate is not a trivial task. Automatic gates are tricky to install and require regular maintenance. Choosing a cheap electronic gate may save money in the short term but maintenance and repair costs can soon add up.
We recommended that you get advice from a professional engineer or independent security consultant to help you assess your requirement and to select the product that best meets your long-term needs.
For assistance in selecting and specifying an automatic gate for your home or business or if you simply have questions, please contact us. on 0800 019 1131
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